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: The new international encyclopaedia
: Gilman, Daniel Coit, 1831-1908 Peck, Harry Thurston, 1856-1914 Colby, Frank Moore, 1865-1925
: Encyclopedias and dictionaries
: New York : Dodd, Mead
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instGustavus Adolphus. Just before the fatefulbattle of Lutzen he had been detached with eitrhtregiments for an independent movement, but arecall was sent after him when the rapid ad- PAPPENHEIM. 319 PAPYBUS. vance of the Protestant leader became known toWallenstein. His splendid charge on the leftwing of the Swedish army had almost changedthe result when he was mortally wounded in thelast charge. He died a few hours afterwards atLeipzig, November 17, 1032. Consult Hess, Gott-fried Heinrich, Graf zu Fappenheim (Leipzig,1855). PAPPUS (Xeo-Lat., from Gk. ndrTros, down,from Trdinros, pappos, grandfather, from TrdTTTras,pappus, father, papa). The peculiar calyx of theComposita?. The flowers are placed close togetherin the flower-head. As a consequence, the sepalsare not necessary for protection, and for me-chanical reasons are probably prevented fromdeveloping in a normal way. Moreover, theflowers are epigynous, so that the sepals aredeveloped from the top of the seed-lilce fruit (acheue.
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sepals a ACHENE9. a, Arnica; b, Sonchue, or sow thistle; c, Taraxicum, ordandelion. (pappus) are entirely obsolete, in others theyform a shallow cup or crown, in others they arearranged as teeth or scales, while in still othersthey constitute a tuft of bristles (a) or hairs (6).It is this last form of pappus which, as in thedandelions, thistles, etc., is a conspicuous char-acter of the family. The hair-like pappus is ex-ceedingly diverse in details of structure, in somecases being coarse and bristly, others soft andsilky, and others beautifully plumose. In thedandelion (c) the achcne develops a long beak atthe summit of which tlic tuft of soft pappus hairsoccurs. In case the pappus has any special de-velopment it is associated with the dispersal ofthe seeds. For example, the hairy pappus ofthistles and dandelions enables the fruit to becarried by currents of air: while the toothedand even barbed pappus of Spanish needles servesas a grappling appendage by which the fruit maylay liohl o
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